This paper presents a new algorithm for segmentation and
classification of S1 and S2 heart sounds without ECG reference.
The proposed approach is composed of three main
stages. In the first stage the fundamental heart sound lobes
are identified using a fast wavelet transform and the Shannon
energy. Next, these lobes are validated and classified into S1
and S2 classes based on Mel-frequency coefficients and on a
non supervised neural network. Finally, regular heart cycles
are identified in a post-processing stage by a heart rhythm
criterion. This approach was tested using sound samples collected
from prosthetic valve implanted patients. Results are
comparable with ECG based approaches.


Biomedical signal Processing, Heart Sound Segmentation

Related Project

IST FP6 MyHeart


ICASSP - IEEE Int Conf. on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing, May 2006

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Year 2014 : 2 citations

 121. Hassani, K., et al. "Detection and Identification of S1 and S2 Heart Sounds Using Wavelet Decomposition and Reconstruction." XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013. Springer International Publishing, 2014.

 Sun, Shuping, et al. "Segmentation-based heart sound feature extraction combined with classifier models for a VSD diagnosis system." Expert Systems with Applications 41.4 (2014): 1769-1780.

Year 2013 : 4 citations


 Gomes, Elsa Ferreira, Alípio M. Jorge, and Paulo J. Azevedo. "Classifying heart sounds using multiresolution time series motifs: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the International C* Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering. ACM, 2013.

 Devil, Anita, Abhishek Misal, and G. R. Sinha. "Performance analysis of DWT at different levels for feature extraction of PCG signals." Emerging Research Areas and 2013 International Conference on Microelectronics, Communications and Renewable Energy (AICERA/ICMiCR), 2013 Annual International Conference on. IEEE, 2013

 Gomes, Elsa Ferreira, and Emanuel Pereira. "Classifying heart sounds using peak location for segmentation and feature construction."

Year 2012 : 2 citations

 Elsa Ferreira Gomes, Emanuel Pereira, "Classifying heart sounds using peak location for segmentation and
feature construction", Workshop Classifying Heart Sounds, La Palma, Canary Islands, 2012.4

 Barabasa, C., Jafari, M., Plumbley, Mark D. , "A robust method for S1/S2 heart sounds detection without ecg reference based on music beat tracking ", 10th International Symposium onElectronics and Telecommunications (ISETC), 307 - 310 , 2012

Year 2011 : 2 citations

 Arash Gharehbaghi, Thierry Dutoit, Amir Sepehri, Peter Hult, Per Ask, "An Automatic Tool for Pediatric Heart Sounds Segmentation", 2011;38:37?40

 Maria Inês Belo Dias Graça, "Hemodynamic parameters assessment: development and characterization of an acoustic probe", Master Thesis, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra,

Year 2010 : 3 citations

 A. F. QUICENO-MANRIQUE, J. I. GODINO-LLORENTE, M. BLANCO-VELASCO,and G. CASTELLANOS-DOMINGUEZ, " Selection of Dynamic Features Based on Time–Frequency Representations for Heart Murmur Detection from Phonocardiographic Signals", Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 38, No. 1, Jan 2010.

 • Wang Xinpei Liu Changchun Li Sun, WANG Xin-pei LIU Chang-chun LI Yuan-yang SUN Chu-ran, Shannon entropy based on high order algorithm for heart sound segmentation Heart sound segmentation algorithm based on high-order Shannon entropy, JOURNAL OF JILIN UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY EDITION) VOL: 2010, 40 (5), 2010.

 • Zhonghong Yan, Zhongwei Jiang, Ayaho Miyamoto, Yunlong Wei,, The moment segmentation analysis of heart sound pattern, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, (in press 2010)

Year 2009 : 5 citations

 • V. Millette, Signal Processing of Heart Signals for the Quantification of Non-Determenistic Events, Master of Applied Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada, 2009.

 • S. Bunluechokchai, P. Tosaranon, Analysis of Heart Sounds with Wavelet Entropy, Proceedings of the European Computing Conference, 721-728, 2009

 • T. Leeudomwong, P. Woraratsoontorn, Wavelet Entropy Detection of Heart Sounds, Proceedings of the European Computing Conference, 737-744, 2009.

 • S. Bunluechokchai, W. Ussawawongaraya, Detection of Mitral Regurgitation and Normal Heart Sounds , Proceedings of the European Computing Conference, pp. 729-736, 2009

 • P. Woraratsoontorn, T. Leeudomwong, Continuous Wavelet Transform Analysis of Heart Sounds, Proceedings of the European Computing Conference, 745-752, 2009.

Year 2008 : 3 citations

 • Edilson Delgado Trejos, Generación y Extraccion/Seleccion de Características en la Deteccion Automática de Isquemia y Deficiencias Valvulares sobre Registros de la Actividad Cardiaca, Departamento de Ingenierıa Eĺectrica, Electronica y Computación Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Tesis doctoral, 2008.

 • V. Milette, N. Baddour, M. Labosse, Quantification of cavitation in mechanical heart valve patients, Canadian Medical and Biological Engineering Society, 2008.

 • K. Courtemance, V. Milette, N. Baddour, Heart sound segmentation based on mel-scaled wavelet transform, Canadian Medical and Biological Engineering Society, 2008.