# On the complexity of computing the hypervolume indicator

### Authors

### Abstract

The goal of multi-objective optimization is to find a set of best compromise solutions for typically conflicting objectives. Due to the complex nature of most real-life problems, only an approximation to such an optimal set can be obtained within reasonable (computing) time. To compare such approximations, and thereby the performance of multi-objective optimizers providing them, unary quality measures are usually applied. Among these,the hypervolume indicator (or S-metric) is of particular relevance due to its favorable properties. Moreover, this indicator has been successfully integrated into stochastic

optimizers, such as evolutionary algorithms, where it serves as a guidance criterion for finding good approximations to the Pareto front. Recent results show that computing the hypervolume indicator can be seen as solving a specialized version of Klee's Measure Problem. In general, Klee's Measure Problem can be solved with O(n log n+n^(d/2) log n) comparisons for an input instance of size n in d dimensions; as of this writing, it is unknown whether a lower bound higher than \\omega(n log n) can be proven. In this article, we derive a lower bound of O(n log n) for the complexity of computing the hypervolume indicator in any number of dimensions d > 1 by reducing the so-called

UNIFORMGAP problem to it. For the three dimensional case, we also present a matching upper bound of O(n log n) comparisons that is obtained by extending an algorithm

for finding the maxima of a point set.

### Journal

IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 13, #5, pp. 1075-1082, October 2009### DOI

### Cited by

#### Year 2015 : 28 citations

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