Can Software Implemented Fault-Injection be used on Real-Time Systems?



Software Implemented Fault Injection (SWIFI) is a well-established technique for fault injection, but with a significant drawback for Real-Time Systems: intrusiveness, also known as 'probe effect�. In fact, for most fault models, additional code has to be run on the same processor that executes the application. The danger lies in some deadlines being missed as a consequence of that overhead.
This paper identifies the sources of intrusiveness, and discusses the procedures to measure it. The question of what level of intrusiveness can be considered acceptable is also addressed.
A Pentium version of an existing SWIFI tool (Xception), developed with no real-time considerations in mind, was tested on a system composed by off the shelf (COTS) components (a standard PC with a Pentium processor and a commercial real time multitasking kernel). Data collected using this platform shows that the intrusiveness can be quite significant.
A technique called "Routine Specialization" is proposed to lower that overhead. Results obtained from a 'real time oriented� injector (RT-Xception) taken from the same system, show a very significant improvement. A comparison with data from other authors shows that with this change SWIFI becomes a viable technique for a wide range of real-time applications.


fault-injection, real-time, dependability evaluation


Software Fault Emulation and Injection


EDDC-3, September 1999

Cited by

Year 2016 : 1 citations

 Horst Benjamin Schirmeier, "Efficient Fault-Injection-based Assessment of Software-Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance", PhD thesis, Technischen Universität Dortmund, 2016

Year 2015 : 1 citations

 J. Frtunikj, J. Fröhlich, T. Rohlfs and A. Knoll, "Qualitative evaluation of fault hypotheses with non-intrusive fault injection," 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW), Gaithersburg, MD, 2015, pp. 160-167

Year 2011 : 3 citations

 1. Marko Miklo, Carl R. Elks, Ronald D. Williams,Charles L. Brown, “Design of a high performance FPGA based fault injector for real-time safety-critical systems,” 2011 IEEE International Conference on Application-Specific Systems, Architectures and Processors (ASAP), Santa Monica, CA, USA, pp. 243 – 246, 11-14 Sept. 2011

 2. Rickard Svenningsson, Jonny Vinter, Henrik Eriksson and Martin Törngren, “MODIFI: A MODel-Implemented Fault Injection Tool”, in COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2010, Volume 6351/2010, 210-222, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-15651-9_16

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Year 2010 : 3 citations

 Daniel Skarin, Raul Barbosa, Johan Karlsson, "GOOFI-2: A tool for experimental dependability assessment," Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2010 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on , vol., no., pp.557-562, June 28 2010-July 1 2010

 Daniel Skarin, Raul Barbosa, Johan Karlsson, "Comparing and Validating Measurements of Dependability Attributes," Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC), 2010 European , vol., no., pp.3-12, 28-30 April 2010

 Rickard Svenningsson, Jonny Vinter, Henrik Eriksson, Martin Törngren, “MODIFI: A MODel-Implemented Fault Injection Tool”. SAFECOMP 2010, 210–222. Springer, 2010

Year 2008 : 1 citations

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Year 2005 : 1 citations

 1. Jonny Vinter, "On the Effects of Soft Errors in Embedded Control Systems?, PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 2005, ISBN 91-7291-630-3

Year 2004 : 1 citations

 1. Yuste Pérez Pedro, “Contribución a la Validación de la Confiabilidad en los Sistemas Empotrados Tolerantes a Fallos”, Phd Thesis, Universidad: Politecnica De Valencia, 2004

Year 2003 : 4 citations

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Year 2002 : 4 citations

 Astrit Ademaj "A Methodology for Dependability Evaluation of the Time-Triggered Architecture Using Software Fault Injection", Proc. of EDCC-4, Toulouse, October 2002, p. 172-190, LNCS 2002.

 Manoel Rodríguez Moreno, "Technologie d'empaquetage pour la sureté de fonctionnement des systemes temps-réel", Thése présentée au Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systémes du Centre Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (LAAS/ CNRS), en vue d'obtenir le titre de Docteur de l'Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, numéro d'ordre 1898, Année 2002.

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